Winzavod / History

    Winemaking enterprise

    The vine draws life-giving juices from the earth in that fertile southern soil. The sun’s rays travel through outer space, to give the vine energy. But only human hands are capable of transforming this gift of nature into sparkling wine. Moscow’s oldest winemaking enterprise was founded in 1889 by the Travnikovi merchants, and produced wine from fruits and berries itself and also bottled wine made in the Crimea and the Caucasus. In Soviet times the enterprise expanded the range of wine produced: producing up to 170 different own-brand and other brand products.


    The house of Princess Volkonskaya

    The first owner of the expansive farmstead, currently located at Mryzovskoy and 4-th Syromiatnichesky lanes, was Life Guards Regiment Captain Melgunov, who sold it to his sister, Princess Catherine Volkonskaya. The noted Moscow noblewoman was known by the affectionate moniker "auntie-warrior," as she had significant influence over her nephew, Field Marshal Peter Volkonsky, Kutuzov’s Chief of Staff.

    Many of the building’s decorative details have survived, and the appearance of the house itself has hardly changed. A terrace destroyed a century ago, has now been restored. It is to be found to the right of the entrance to "WINZAVOD." In the powerful, restrained center lies an exquisite portico, and in front – and unusual semi-circular protrusion.

    In 1805 the estate was bought by the merchant Monin, and four years later it was sold again, this time to Nikifor Prokofiev, who opened the Medo brewery on site.

    In early 1821 the manor passed to the second guild merchant Revel Frederick Danielson, who attached a two-story wing containing the brewery and malt house, to the residential section of the estate.

    On the other side of the lane a large warehouse was built to store malt. To this day the intricately intertwined monogram of his son Ludwig Fridrihovich can still be seen in the tympanum of the house’s main portico, surrounded by lush designs. Elegant empire-style decor focuses on the garden facade.

    In the forties, the concern’s new owners were first guild merchants William Watson and Peter Dreier. Under them this enterprise became Moscow’s second largest, after "Trekhgornaya" - producing 57 thousand rubles’ worth of beer a year.

    In 1855 the vast estate and factory were owned by the famous "otkupschitskiy king" Vasily Alexandrovich Kokorev. He made a fortune on wine repurchases, was involved in banking, was one of the pioneers of the Russian oil industry, founded several industrial companies and became one of Russia’s richest men. To the authorities’ displeasure, Kokorev also took an active role in public life, but he had very little room for maneuver in these activities.

    Kokorev collected paintings and was a patron of the arts. The gallery he opened in 1861 comprised over 500 paintings, including work by Bryullov, Levitsky, Borovikovsky, and Kiprensky. Some pieces went on to be acquired by Mr Tretyakov after the owner went bankrupt. For a time the site hosted a plant owned by Mr Mamontov that produced wax, pitch and stoppers, which moved to its own premises near Presnenskaya Gate in 1856, where were it started producing oil gloss lacquer.




    In the mid XIX century, the estate’s western part was separated from the rest of it by the Moscow-Kursk railway line. The malt storehouse found itself on the corner of a newly paved street and suddenly gained in importance in city-planning terms. The brewery took over all the buildings in the northern part of the estate. In the 1870s and 1880s the factory was bought by the Moscow Bavaria (Russian beer and honey company in Moscow), owned by the brothers Ivan and Kiril Tarusin, who owned numerous properties in the Plyushchikha area. The plant was equipped with three steam engines with a total power of 45 horsepower, and had a 70-strong workforce producing premium beer branded "Vienna pure number 1" at a cost of 1 ruble 60 kopecks a pail. Their "Black velvet" brand was also very well known.

    In 1909, the executors of Mr Ledentsov’s will followed his instructions to bequeath part of the estate to educational purposes, and the main house was converted to house a city four-year college. By this time the estate had significantly reduced in size: one section had been separated by of the railway line and another section, next to the Yauza, was sold. Mr Goloulin was the master, and for many years locals referred to the building as “Goloulinskiy” and the whole area running down to the Yauza as “Goloulinkaya”.

    Across Khludovsky Lane (now 6 Syromyatnicheskiy Lane), lies a variety of charities associated with Gerasim Ivanovich Khludov. Khludovskiys’ peasants were weavers, and the whole family was notable for their flair for enterprise, their shrewdness, and the great diligence they showed. After the founder’s death, his sons received 200 thousand rubles which used to expand production. Soon they were in a position to start trading in Moscow, and in 1847 began building a cotton factory in Yegoryevsk, which went on to become the largest in the Moscow suburbs.

    Alexey Khludov ran the manufacturing business with his brother and became one of Russia’s richest men. In 1865 the Khludov family established an office in Liverpool, where raw materials and steam engines were purchased, which stayed open for over forty years. In 1874 they organized the "Partnership on an equal footing" with a capital of 3 million rubles, in which the shareholders were the owners themselves and their families. A working day at the factory lasted 14 hours for adults and 9 hours for children. Saltykov-Schedrin took an interest in the working conditions in Khludovy’s factory in the late fifties. On the other hand, the Khludovs were also known as benefactors and patrons, and Alexey Khludov’s collection of artworks included Fedotov’s "The Discriminating Bride," as well as work by Perov, Aivazovsky and Bryullov.

    After the early death of his only son Paul, Alexey Khludov donated several hundred thousand rubles and bought a huge plot of land in Syromyatniki area for the construction of a Charitable House. After he died in 1885, the Merchant Capital Society started to build a large shelter with a house church, to designs by the architect Freudenberg. It opened on May 8, 1888. When it opened 50 women and 30 men were given accommodation there, and 87 free flats were provided for 150 widows with orphans.

    Khludov’s daughters also took an active role in the construction of the charitable foundation in Syromyatniki: Alexandra Naidenova donated funds to build free apartments, Lubov’ Vostryakova donated a free public school, and Praskovya Prokhorova donated funds for a facility for invalids, a free female vocational school and free apartments (the famous Russian architect Lev Kekushev designed some of the buildings). In Soviet times Syromyatniki was a large industrial slum area near the railway station.




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